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Core Curriculum: Descriptions of Modules and Sessions

Gender and Development, as an essential component of the development process, is continually refined whenever women and men engage in the challenge of transformation in communities. This Toolkit’s curriculum integrates specific concerns raised by development practitioners in the daily work of World Vision and partnering organisations. As such, it incorporates biblical reflection intended to exercise the “soul” of a Christian development organisation, as well as internationally recognised GAD practises, concepts and tools increasingly required of all development professionals.

The sequential nature of the Toolkit’s modules reflects the difficult and essential work of personal and corporate change that is expected as part of this training. The curriculum intends to be transformational, not only in communities where staff work and live, but likewise in organisational and leadership cultures, in staff families and in relationships with colleagues, recognising that we are all in need of transformational development. Each session builds a foundation for participants that will both motivate and support this transformational process. Further, skills participants acquire as they use Gender Analysis Tools and Gender Indicators prepare them to work effectively in Area Development Programmes towards outcomes that are long-term and multi-generational, for the holistic benefit of women and men, girls and boys.

Module 1

Why Gender and Development Is Important to Our Work

In this module, Gender and Development (GAD) is linked to World Vision’s Core Values, Mission Statement and policies. Participants explore connections between the organisation’s daily work and gender issues, gender concerns, gender concepts and gender analysis. This engagement lays the groundwork for in-depth gender training in Modules 2-5.

    1. World Vision’s Mission Statement, Core Values and GAD Policy
      During this session, the facilitator presents an overview of the mission statement, core values and gender policy as well as a historical overview of key individuals, events and initiatives in Gender and Development as a critical element in World Vision’s journey. Group discussion centres on implications for transformational development in Area Development Programmes and initial assessment of the relationship between policy and current reality.

    Module 2

    Gender and Biblical Reflection

    For an NGO whose identity, history and core values are Christian, biblical and theological grounding are essential to determining priorities, strategies and response at every level of our daily work. This is particularly true of Gender and Development. World Vision affirms that Scripture is to be interpreted holistically and thematically, and also distinguishes between inspiration and interpretation. Inspiration relates to the divine impulse and recognises the whole canon of Scripture as the Word of God. Interpretation is our human activity as we seek to discern revealed truth in harmony with the totality of Scripture and under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.

    To be truly biblical, followers of Jesus must continually examine their faith and practise under the searchlight of Scripture. In humility, we acknowledge that Christians throughout history have erred in interpretation at various times and have had to rely on the grace of God in resubmitting to the authority of Scripture in light of new understanding. Just as we now recognise that Copernicus was correct despite condemnation by church authorities, and just as Jesus had to rebuke Nicodemus, his own disciples and religious leaders of his day for not understanding Scripture accurately, so we followers of Jesus today need to be humbly willing to re-examine our assumptions regarding God’s words to us about gender relations and reconciliation.

    Module 2 explores central biblical passages, concepts and imagery related to gender dynamics. Activities allow staff to reflect on what the Bible says about gender relations, discrimination, women, injustice and cultural issues in gender relations. The actual historical context of the life of women in the New Testament illumines Jesus’ response to harmful traditions and cultural constraints faced by women at that time.

    Jesus’ own transformation of gender dynamics – the cultural and religious norms during New Testament times – is presented as our deepest motivation to work for justice, empowerment and transformed gender dynamics in the 21st century. This module can also be used as devotional material or as a one-day in- depth study on gender and the Bible.

      1. From Genesis to Galatians
        New insights are encouraged during small group discussion and reflection as participants re- examine key theological concepts in Genesis with a gender lens. Additionally, participants examine concepts of gender equality, diversity, unity and complementarity in light of Genesis 1:26-28 and Galatians 3:26-28.
      2. Incarnational Power: The Magnificat
        A dramatic reading of The Magnificat highlights the poetry, socio/political/historical realities and implications of this passage for gender equality. Participants work in pairs or small groups to explore how The Magnificat speaks to God’s order and point of view regarding gender dynamics and social structures. Further questions address intergenerational implications for nurture and support of girl children’s potential, along with consequences of this provision or lack for whole communities.
      3. Jesus Challenges the Gender Dynamic
        A thorough grounding in the “gender dynamics” that Jesus lived and modelled is essential for any Christian understanding of gender. In this session, participants are introduced to historical and textual evidence of constraints women faced in New Testament times. Participants work in small groups to prepare and present a narrated role-play of two biblical stories: The Samaritan Woman, and Mary and Martha. Narrative and dramatic role- play help participants examine ways in which Jesus engaged with harmful traditional and cultural patterns.
      4. Gender Imagery in the New Testament Participants examine familiar passages and imagery in the New Testament with a gender lens. Discussion and activities heighten awareness of “gender mainstreaming” throughout the New Testament and the challenge this raises for all Christians working with GAD.
      5. Scripture Search in the Community: Using a Gender Lens
        This session outlines Scripture Search methodology and its effectiveness in introducing and developing gender equity. Participants use role-play to explore practical and powerful ways in which Scripture can be applied to resolve a gender conflict.

    Module 3

    Gender and Development Concepts

    Module 3 builds on the importance of gender to World Vision’s work in sustainable development and on the importance of understanding a community’s theological perceptions of gender dynamics (Modules 1 and 2).

    Activities encourage increased awareness of historical dimensions of gender dynamics and the urgency and scope of current work in GAD. Participants learn essential concepts of Gender and Development, including the difference between sex and gender, the importance of understanding gender roles, the shift from “Women in Development” to “Gender and Development” (WID to GAD), empowerment and women’s triple roles in work (reproductive, productive and community), as well as practical versus strategic gender needs.

    Most importantly, these concepts are linked to participants’specificengagementsinAreaDevelopment Programmes (ADPs) and communities.

    Session Descriptions
      1. Sex and Gender Roles
        This session explores gender roles in light of participants’ own experiences and cultural conditioning, as well as the concept of gender roles in GAD work. Distinguishing between “sex” and “gender” further clarifies the difference between aspects of our lives that are socially conditioned and those that are gender-related biological imperatives.
      2. The Road from WID to GAD: Key Definitions for Gender and Development
        Following the road from WID to GAD illumines reasons that gender dynamics have such a profound effect on the well-being of women and men, boys and girls. Presentations focus on differences in WID and GAD approaches as development practitioners work with communities in problem analysis, as well as definitions of goals, solutions and strategies.
      3. Practical Gender Needs and Strategic Gender Needs
        This essential GAD concept is presented and discussed with the entire group participating. Using a worksheet to identify Practical Gender Needs (PGNs) and Strategic Gender Needs (SGNs), participants then work individually with a list of needs to determine which would be categorised as strategic and which categorised as practical. Because this GAD concept is expressed in technical language, the session closes with participants’ construction of natural language (community language) expressions of these needs.
      4. Women’s Triple Role: Productive, Reproductive and Community Work
        After distinguishing between these three categories of work, participants in small groups develop a matrix to analyse types of work present in their communities. Both gender needs (strategic or practical) and types of work are considered. The session closes with a discussion of the value of consistent technical definitions for GAD concepts. Additionally, there is an emphasis on recognising these concepts when expressed differently by ADP and community members.

      Module 4

      Gender Analysis Tools

      Gender Analysis, for development practitioners at all levels, includes integration of sound GAD practises into every phase of the LEAP Cycle. Module 4 includes specific and internationally recognised Gender Analysis Tools that assist development practitioners in this process.

      An opening session introduces Gender Analysis and demonstrates how tools are used in the LEAP Cycle. Sessions include the Harvard Analytical Framework, the Gender Analysis Matrix, The 24-Hour Day, the Equality and Empowerment Framework (EEF/formerly WEEF), and basic concepts in the Participatory Learning Approach (PLA). Each tool is presented with opportunities to practise key components of Gender Analysis in both the training setting and a community or Area Development Programme (ADP) setting. Finally, a session on Transformational Development gender-sensitive indicators assists participants in programme design and integrating use of the tools into daily work.

        1. An Introduction to Gender Analysis Tools
          The what, why, who, when and how of Gender Analysis Tools is the focus of this session. What is Gender Analysis? Why conduct Gender Analysis? Who conducts Gender Analysis? When is the best time to conduct Gender Analysis? How is Gender Analysis conducted? What tools are available?

          Additionally, this session presents a paradigm of how key components interact in Gender Analysis. These key components include gender roles, gender division of labour, access, power relations and gender needs. Participants learn how these components interact and practise recognising the dynamics as expressed in the daily language of their communities.

          This session also links Gender Analysis Tools with the LEAP Cycle. A matrix identifies specific tools with their appropriate use in each phase of the LEAP Cycle.

        2. Introduction to the Harvard Analytical Framework
          A brief presentation of the four elements of the Harvard Analytical Framework is the focus of this session. Subsequent sessions detail each of the four elements, but this introduction presents the framework as an integrated whole. The intent is to prepare participants to examine the framework in depth.

        3. The Harvard Analytical Framework: Activity Profile
          A plenary group presentation of the Activity Profile opens this session. After review of the three kinds of work (reproductive, productive and community), a skit/role-play offers both skit participants and observers an opportunity to experience being on the receiving end of an Activity Profile, as well as opportunity to examine their own attitudes towards different kinds of work. Group discussion focuses on appropriate methodologies for gathering information using an Activity Profile and appropriate use of the tool in each phase of the LEAP Cycle.

        4. The Harvard Analytical Framework: Access and Control Profile
          Plenary group presentation of components and essential definitions of the Access and Control Profile prepares participants for a hands-on practise session with another member of the group. Using an interview process, they administer the Access and Control Profile. Time is allotted during the session to clarify definitions and categories. Particular sensitivities – required when eliciting this kind of information in a community – are discussed, as well as management strategies required to master use of this tool in the midst of a busy work schedule. Participants also examine effective use of this tool in each phase of the LEAP Cycle.

        5. The Harvard Analytical Framework: Analysis of Factors Influencing Activities, Access and Control
          Using project documents from their own work, participants use this tool to analyse external factors that influence the success of Transformational Development practise. Discussion centres on essential strategies to ensure sound development design practises can influence external factors to have a positive effect on the life of the project. Use of this tool in organising data and analysing GAD constraints and opportunities in each phase of the LEAP Cycle is also a focus of this session.

        6. The Harvard Analytical Framework: Project Cycle Analysis
          Participants apply LEAP Project Cycle Analysis questions to project documents to determine whether gender-appropriate questions or Gender Analysis was used in initial project identification, design, monitoring and implementation. One element of small group reflection centres on the importance of sound management strategies to successful achievement of long-term Transformational Development that includes gender equity and justice.

        7. The Harvard Analytical Framework: Project Application Session
          After a community practicum in which participants experience first-hand how to use the Harvard Analytical Framework, they engage in small group work, plan a presentation of their findings and lessons learned in the community, and share this information in a plenary session. Participants are encouraged, in their community practicum, to determine how linking Gender Analysis to each phase of the LEAP Cycle will enhance the effectiveness of GAD programming.

        8. The Gender Analysis Matrix
          After working with the Harvard Analytical Framework, participants are introduced to the Gender Analysis Matrix. Small group work and plenary group discussion give participants opportunity to work with the matrix directly and to implement its use in specific and appropriate development scenarios. Participants also examine how dynamic use of this tool can support empowerment goals and transformed gender relations in communities.

        9. Empowerment: Goals, Definitions and Classifications
          Empowerment is examined within a specific paradigm, distinguishing power as “power over”, “power to”, “power with” and “power within”. Participants evaluate essential gender dynamics associated with their work in development programmes. As empowerment is an important World Vision choice for sustainable development work, a clear understanding of goals, definitions and classifications of empowerment is crucial to sound programming.

        10. Equality and Empowerment Framework (EEF)
          Presentation of the Equality and Empowerment Framework leads participants to further integration of GAD concepts and Gender Analysis Tools, increasing their range of options as they work in sustainable development. This opportunity to become acquainted with a widely used framework and to examine it in light of Transformational Development principles broadens awareness of resources adaptable for various contexts and enhances programming expertise across the LEAP Cycle.

        11. Participatory Learning Approach and Gender Analysis
          Most participants will be familiar with PLA. This session is designed to link their expertise and experience to Gender Analysis. Content includes working with timelines, family lines, trends analysis and participatory resource mapping. Questions and engagement in PLA are linked with the Harvard Analytical Framework to encourage integration of Gender Analysis Tools where appropriate. The session encourages using PLA in each phase of the LEAP Cycle to lead to transformed gender relations.

        12. The 24-Hour Day
          Staff can practise and master this effective and simple tool by interviewing each other in pairs or small groups. They then analyse data gathered and review the types of work (reproductive, productive and community) in light of GAD. Roles of women and men, boys and girls are illumined and used throughout each phase of the LEAP Cycle.

        13. Gender-Sensitive Indicators: An Overview
          Differences between qualitative and quantitative indicators are defined in this session. After a presentation of the Canadian International Development Agency’s (CIDA) Guide to Gender- Sensitive Indicators, participants engage in a case-study approach to use of these indicators. Participants integrate and apply what they have learned in previous sessions and also examine how sound gender analysis can be reflected in World Vision’s Transformational Development Indicators (TDIs) and ultimately support transformed gender relations in the community between men and women, girls and boys.

        Module 5

        Multi-Sectoral Gender Awareness: Women as Peacemakers, Health, HIV and AIDS, MED, Education

        Module 5 focuses on issues and available tools that enhance gender awareness in specific development sectors. Sessions are dedicated to gender issues and available tools for Women as Peacemakers, Health, HIV and AIDS, MED and Education. Each highlights the importance of Gender Analysis Tools in programme design and implementation. Participants review what they have learned in previous modules and reinforce these learnings as they analyse the relevance of specific tools and the importance of Gender Analysis to specific sectors.

        Session Descriptions
        1. Women as Peacemakers
          When armed conflict disrupts daily life in a community, women are both at risk in the conflict itself and of high value in reconciling the conflict. This session focuses on women’s dual strength and vulnerability in armed conflict scenarios and highlights particular strategies and efforts required to meet the needs of both genders.
        2. Gender Analysis and Health
          To assess the complex interactions of factors that promote health and well-being in communities and Area Development Programmes (ADPs), this session utilises the Equality and Empowerment Framework (EEF, formerly WEEF) to analyse empowerment in addressing health issues in programme design, implementation and evaluation. Small-group questions allow participants to study this interaction of factors affecting health and well-being through the lens of an individual woman’s life in the community.
        3. Gender Analysis and HIV and AIDS HIV/AIDS is of increasing significance and concern for many countries already overburdened with economic and development challenges. In this session, participants examine rights and responsibilities of both genders in addressing HIV/ AIDS. Existing factors that increase vulnerability are analysed through use of the Harvard Analytical Framework.
        4. Gender Analysis and Micro-enterprise Development (MED)
          Economic viability for both genders is crucial in every community. This session examines needs and circumstances of women and men as they work towards this goal. Discussion of uses of Gender Analysis Tools in MED programme design and implementation allows staff to analyse interactions of factors that influence the success of MED projects.
        5. Gender Analysis and Education
          Gender issues specifically related to both formal and non-formal education are integrated into presentations and discussions in this session. Small group work focuses on effective strategies to ensure both genders equal access to education. Cultural and economic factors are examined through use of The 24-Hour Day. Participants consider how current practises and norms affect time and resources available for education.

        Module 6

        Girls and Boys as Agents of Change

        World Vision’s central focus on the sustained well- being of children as a key development goal makes this module on children – girls and boys – essential. How do we protect children? How do we encourage their authentic participation? How do we transform their role in the community? How do we help adults in a community see children’s value and encourage development of their potential? How do we ensure that both girls and boys experience gender equity and build healthy models of transformed gender relations in their daily behaviour – both now and in the future?

        This module addresses these questions through presentations of important content in the areas of protection and participation, healthy gender modelling, and children’s rights. Participants examine this content in light of phases of the LEAP Cycle and in programmes in which they are working. As this training focuses on transformed gender relations, participants use their gender lens – developed in Modules 1-5 – to examine attitudes towards children and how they can contribute to sustained well-being of children in communities in which they work.

          1. Empowering Girls and Boys What difference does it make?
            This session focuses on empowerment of girls and boys and links that empowerment to the sustained well-being of children. Discussions, role-plays focused on transforming ways community members interact with children, and a choral reading of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – contribute to participants’ understanding.
          2. Key Concepts, Types, Methods and Guidelines for Full Participation of Girls and Boys
            This session helps participants understand key concepts for effective participation by boys and girls. Group members also examine types of participation usually found in communities, and how these relate to each phase of the LEAP Cycle. Additionally, group members work with diverse participation methodologies appropriate for eliciting participation of girls and boys.
          3. Using Gender Analysis Tools with Girls and Boys
            In this session, participants re-visit experience with Gender Analysis Tools to learn appropriate ways to use these amongst children to gather information in highly participatory ways. World Vision believes children can be agents of transformational change. Participants examine this expectation in light of what they have learned in this module.

          Module 7

          Gender and Advocacy

          Almost all development initiatives focused on transformed gender relations involve some level of advocacy for the women and men, boys and girls involved. In this module, participants become familiar with World Vision’s definitions, priorities and categories of advocacy. This session also introduces international conventions as a standard and guideline for improving conditions for both genders. Participants look at issues and concerns when embarking on advocacy work, and appropriate responses. Finally, participants look at dynamic challenges faced by World Vision colleagues in advocacy to examine how to match the right advocacy response to issues in their own work.

            1. GAD and Advocacy in World Vision An Introduction
              Participants are introduced to World Vision definitions and priorities in advocacy. They discuss their own experiences in advocacy and identify common issues and concerns and how to overcome resistance, amongst themselves or ADP staff members and amongst the communities in which they work. Presentation of international conventions which World Vision adheres to ensures that participants recognise their responsibility to uphold these conventions in their development work.
            2. World Vision’s Categories of Advocacy Practise Link to Gender Advocacy
              In this session, World Vision’s categories of advocacy practise are presented to participants with specific examples of usage and possible outcomes. Participants then utilise an Advocacy Category matrix to reflect on advocacy issues in their own programmes and how advocacy initiatives can effectively address these.

            Module 8

            Gender and Humanitarian & Emergency Affairs (HEA)

            Gender sensitivity in HEA programming responses to relief and emergency scenarios is essential to the successful implementation of HEA. Once development practitioners and HEA experts are involved in a response, there is little time to integrate GAD knowledge and insights. For this reason, thoughtful consideration of the demands of Gender Analysis within a relief and emergency modality needs to be incorporated into HEA plans in a pre- response timeframe.

            Much of the material in this module is adapted from Elaine Enarson’s work with World Vision staff during the recent tsunami in Asia and other HEA scenarios around the globe. Checklists cover considerations for practitioners before, during and after a relief scenario. Participants discuss these in small groups and present findings and observations in plenary. They examine their own experiences in relief responses and consider what contributions Gender Analysis can make. Finally, participants are introduced to CIDA’s (Canadian International Development Agency) Capabilities and Vulnerabilities Framework as a way of organising a gender-sensitive response. Exposure to this framework also ensures that participants are familiar with an internationally recognised and widely used framework.

              1. Introduction to Gender and HEA
                A background reading by Elaine Enarson offers participants and facilitators an in-depth look at how to think about GAD in emergency scenarios and how this focus can lead to sustainable development. Insights from World Vision HEA experience contribute to understanding how concepts of Reproductive, Productive and Community work transfer to Gender Analysis in post-disaster scenarios.
              2. Gender Considerations in HEA Programming and Planning
                This session focuses on sound GAD practises in both rapid response mode and in post- disaster development planning. Participants are introduced to these practises through presentation and handouts of checklists for every development area. Using these checklists, they work in small groups to evaluate past experience in HEA and what they can do differently next time.
              3. The Capacities and Vulnerabilities Framework
                CIDA’s Capacities and Vulnerabilities Framework gives relief workers another tool to work flexibly within emergency or refugee scenarios. Knowledge of and aptitude in using this tool is especially important in partnering with other agencies who may be using CIDA’s framework to plan their response